TaintedTextWithQuotes

Emitted when user-controlled input that can contain quotation marks can be passed into to an echo statement.

Risk

This could lead to a potential Cross Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerability. Using a XSS vulnerability, an attacker could inject malicious JavaScript and execute any action JavaScript could do. Examples include:

  • Stealing authentication material (e.g. cookies, JWT tokens)
  • Exfiltrate sensitive information by reading the DOM
  • Keylog entries on the website (e.g. fake login form)

Whether this is exploitable or not depends on a few conditions:

  • Is an executable mimetype set? (e.g. text/html)
  • Is the content served inline or as attachment? (Content-Disposition)
  • Is the output properly sanitized? (e.g. stripping all HTML tags or having an allowlist of allowed characters)

Example

<?php
$param = strip_tags($_GET['param']);
?>

<script>
    console.log('<?=$param?>')
</script>

Passing ');alert('injection');// as a GET param here would would cause the alert to trigger.

Mitigations

  • Sanitize user input by using functions such as htmlentities with the ENT_QUOTES flag or use an allowlist.
  • Set all cookies to HTTPOnly.
  • Consider using Content Security Policy (CSP), to limit the risk of XSS vulnerabilities.

Further resources